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This page was last edited on 22 January 2018, at 02:11.

The legality of this industry was brought to theUnited States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuitin the case ofLexmark Intl v. Static Control Components. The Court ruled that reverse-engineering thehandshakingprocedure to enable compatibility did not violate theDigital Millennium Copyright Act.[17]TheSupreme Court of the United Statesalso ruled in May 2017 inImpression Products v. Lexmarkthat companies cannot use patent law to block reuse of products protected by patent once the product is sold, which in the case of ink cartridges, allows the sale of refurbished cartridges both within the United States and overseas.[18]

By the year 2012, 500 million laser cartridges and 1.8 billion ink cartridges had been dumped in landfills.

Articles needing additional references from February 2008

is a component of aninkjet printerthat contains theinkthat is deposited onto during printing.

Wikipedia articles needing style editing from January 2011

Ink cartridges are typically priced at $13 to $75 per ounce ($1,664 to $9,600 per gallon) of ink,[6]meaning that refill cartridges sometimes cost a substantial fraction of the cost of the printer. To save money, many people use compatible ink cartridges from a vendor other than the printer manucturer. Others use aftermarket inks, refilling their own ink cartridges using a kit that includes bulk ink. The high cost of cartridges has also provided an incentive for counterfeiters to supply cartridges lsely claiming to be made by the original manucturer.[7]The print cartridge industry lost an estimated $3 billion in 2009 due to this, according to anInternational Data Corporationestimate.

ACRA v. Lexmark. Electronic Frontier Foundation.Archivedfrom the original on 2015-04-22

. ION Publications LLC.Archivedfrom the original on 12 April 2015

Many programs have been implemented in the United States and Europe[22]to encourage the recycling of ink cartridges. New York has implemented a recycling law for businesses and consumers regarding toner and ink cartridges.[23]In California the Public Contract Code (PCC) section 12156[24]encourages businesses to purchase recycled ink and toner cartridges. In theUK, large compatible cartridge manucturers have implemented recycling programmes in order to receive back empty cartridges for refilling of HP, Lexmark, Dell, etc. cartridges, as no compatible version is readily available.

Environmentally Friendly Ink Cartridges TomatoInk.

Articles with permanently dead external links

HP Deskjet Printers - Cleaning and Maintaining the Printer HP® Support.

Laser toner or inkjet cartridges sold as remanuctured are cartridges that have been reassembled with parts already in production, and refilled with new ink. Many third party newly manuctured cartridges exist, these are named compatible cartridges and refer to any cartridge that is not made by the original manucturer of the printer. Inkjet cartridges sold as compatible are typically newly manuctured cartridges. Compatible and OEM cartridges can be remanuctured and refilled. Inkjet cartridges sold as remanuctured are cartridges that have been used at least once by a consumer and then refilled by a third party.[16]

The printing depends on the smooth flow of ink, which can be hindered if the ink begins to dry at the print head, as can happen when an ink level becomes low. Dried ink can be cleaned from a cartridge print head using isopropyl alcohol or water.[2]Isopropyl alcohol will damage the printing head, melting the plastic at the connections and rubber gaskets. Tap water contains contaminants that may clog the print head, so distilled water and a lint-free cloth is recommended.[3]

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Epson intros own ink tank (CISS) printers: L100, L200 and L800 Pinoy Tech Blog - Philippines Longest-running Technology Blog.

tone or style may not reflect theencyclopedic toneused on Wikipedia

2013-05-27 at theWayback Machine. Recharger Magazine, June 2009

The list below outlines a few cts about toner/ink cartridges and the impact they have on the environment.[20]

Each year over 350 million cartridges are thrown out tolandfills.

All Epson printers use apiezoelectriccrystal in each nozzle instead of a heating element. When current is applied, the crystal changes shape or size, increasing the pressure in the ink channel and thus forcing a droplet of ink from the nozzle.[5]There are two types of crystals used: those that elongate when subjected to electricity or bi-morphs which bend. The ink channels in a piezoelectric ink jet print head can be formed using a variety of techniques, but one common method is lamination of a stack of metal plates, each of which includes precision micro-bricated features of various shapes (i.e. containing an ink channel, orifice, reservoir and crystal). This cool environment allows use of inks which react badly when heated. For example,genuine canon ink cartridges roughly 1/1000 of every ink jet is vaporised due to the intense heat, and ink must be designed not the clog the printer with the products of thermal decomposition. It also can make a smaller ink drop in some situations than thermal inkjet schemes.

Stohr, Greg; Decker, Susan (May 30, 2017).U.S. Supreme Court Curbs Patent-Holder Power to Block Resale.

Whitney, Lance (2010-03-18).HP settles inkjet cartridge patent complaints.

HP Ink Costs More Than Human Blood, BoozeGizmodo, the Gadget Guide, 2006

The ink also acts as a coolant to protect the metal-plate heating elements − when the ink supply is depleted, and printing is attempted, the heating elements in thermal cartridges often burn out, permanently damaging the print head. When the ink first begins to run low, the cartridge should be refilled or replaced, to avoid overheating damage to the print head.[4]

Arizona Cartridge Remanucturers Association Inc. v. Lexmark International Inc.

ey, black. Over the years, two distinct forms of black have become available: one that blends readily with other colors for graphical printing, and a near-waterproof variant for text.

Information on refillable cartridges with auto reset chip. the original on 2009-08-15

Some manucturers incorporate the printers head into the cartridge (examples includeHPDell, andLexmark), while others such asEpsonkeep the print head a part of the printer itself. Both sides make claims regarding their approach leading to lower costs for the consumer.

Fang, Mei (12 April 2010).How Is Inkjet Printing Done?.

All printer suppliers produce their own type of ink cartridges. Cartridges for different printers may be incompatible either physically or electrically.

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It can sometimes be cheaper to buy a new printer than to replace the set of ink cartridges supplied with the printer. The major printer manucturers − Hewlett Packard, Lexmark, Dell, Canon, Epson andBrother− use arazor and blades[12]business model, often breaking even or losing money selling printers while expecting to make a profit by selling cartridges over the life of the printer. Since much of the printer manucturers profits are from ink and toner cartridge sales, some of these companies have taken various actions against aftermarket cartridges.[13]

. Society for Imaging Science and Technology. Archived fromthe originalon 2015-06-22

Perhaps the easiest, most trouble-free method of refilling ink cartridges is through the use of a CISS (Continuous Ink Supply System). A CISS consists of a set of cartridges that have tubes connected to them, through which the ink continuously flows from ink reservoirs on the outside of the printer. Instead of refilling the cartridges themselves, the user simply refills the bottles on the outside of the printer. Early CIS systems were composed of OEM cartridges that had been drilled and outfitted with fittings to accept the ink delivery tubes, a set of ribbon tubes, and plastic bottles with holes drilled in the caps for the tubes and the vents. Todays CIS systems are mass-produced in China, often incorporating all ink bottles into one partitioned container. They typically utilize auto-reset chips,generic hp toner which means the cartridges rarely have to be removed from the printer.

Some cartridges contain ink specially formulated for printing photographs.

The high cost of wasted printer inkConsumer Reports. June 2013.Archivedfrom the original on 2016-09-19.

Articles with dead external links from April 2017

OEM vs Compatible Printer Cartridges. 2017-04-01.Archivedfrom the original on 2017-04-27

Cartridges can take up to 425 to 1000 years todecompose.

L100 & L200 High-Capacity Ink Tank Inkjet Printers - Milestone Products - Epson.

Each ink cartridge contains one or more ink reservoirs; certain producers also addelectronic contacts and a chipthat communicates with the printer.

Some printer manucturers set up their cartridges to interact with the printer, preventing operation when the ink level is low, or when the cartridge has been refilled.[11]One researcher with the magazineWhich?over-rode such an interlocked system and found that in one case he could print up to 38% more good quality pages, after the chip stated that the cartridge was empty.[11]In theUnited Kingdom, in 2003, the cost of ink has been the subject of anOffice of Fair Tradinginvestigation, asWhich?magazine has accused manucturers of a lack of transparency about the price of ink and called for an industry standard for measuring ink cartridge performance.[11]Which?stated that color HP cartridges cost over seven times more per milliliter than 1985Dom Perignon.[11]

Archived copyArchivedfrom the original on 2015-05-16

Every ink cartridge becomes 3.5 pounds of solid waste.

HP has fiercely defended its printing interests from the refill industry, including filing patent complaints and lse advertising lawsuits which allege that inferior ink is not properly differentiated from the original HP ink.[19]

Edwards, Cliff (28 May 2009).HP Gets Tough on Ink Counterfeiters.

Consumers can refill ink cartridges themselves with a kit, or they can take the cartridge to a refiller or remanucturer where ink is pumped back into cartridges made up of components from previously used cartridge products.PC Worldreports that refilled cartridges have higher ilure rates, print fewer pages than new cartridges, and demonstrate more on-page problems like streaking, curling, and color bleed.[14]

. INKSYSTEM®.Archivedfrom the original on 2016-03-05

BBC Radio 4 You and Yours - Hewlett Packard accused of misleading advertising in the UK, 26 April 2007

Printers: Refills or new cartridges?. 2007-04-03. Archived fromthe originalon 2007-06-05

Generally speaking, Canon, Dell, HP, and Lexmark cartridges are not difficult to refill, though some Lexmark cartridges employ a built-in counter chip that cant be reset; Epson cartridges and some newer Brother cartridges also have a built-in counter chip, however it is possible to purchase a chip resetter for these models. Since older Brother cartridges generally lack any chip and consist of merely a sack of ink, they can be readily refilled.

Another alternative involves modifications of an original cartridge allowing use ofcontinuous ink systemswith external ink tanks.[8]Some manucturers, including Canon, have introduced new models featuring in-built continuous ink systems.[9]This was seen as a welcome move by users, especially small business owners who rely on bulk-printing solutions, like Internet cafes and small-scale print shops.[10]

Most consumer inkjet printers, such as those made byCanonHP, andLexmark(but notEpson) use a thermal inkjet; inside each partition of the ink reservoir is a heating element with a tiny metal plate or resistor. In response to a signal given by the printer, a tinycurrentflows through the metal or resistor it warm, and the ink in contact with the heated resistor is vaporized into a tiny steam bubble inside thenozzle.[1]As a consequence, an ink droplet is forced out of the cartridge nozzle onto the . This process takes a fraction of a millisecond.

Most modern inkjets carry a black cartridge for text, and either a single CMYK combined or a discrete cartridge for each color; while keeping colors separate was initially rare, it has become common in more recent years. Some higher-end inkjets offer cartridges for extra colors.

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Another option is for the consumer to purchase bulk ink (in pints, quarts, or gallons) and refill the cartridges themselves. This can be extremely cost-effective if the consumer is a heavy user of cartridges, although care is required while refilling to avoid ink stains on hands, clothes, or surroundings. One US pint (437 ml) is sufficient to fill about 15 to 17 large-capacity cartridges (or 34 to 39 per liter of ink).

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. Castle Ink.Archivedfrom the original on 2015-09-06

Because printer cartridges from the original manucturer are often expensive, demand exists for cheaper third party options. These include ink sold in bulk, cartridge refill kits, machines in stores that automatically refill cartridges, remanuctured cartridges, and cartridges made by an entity other than the original manucturer.

Pinoy Tech Blog - Philippines Longest-running Technology Blog

. October 2010.Archivedfrom the original on 2015-06-26

. Bloomberg L.P.Archivedfrom the original on 6 March 2016

Some third party manucturers have been offering refillable cartridges with an auto reset chip[15]to simplify the refilling process. These refillable cartridges are less harmful to the environment and often easy to further refill.

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